To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird pdf, the novel by the American author Harper Lee, very popular novel in world, & translated in 40 languages, free book pdf available and before buying you can read a summery of book.
Short Summary of the Book:
When he was nearly thirteen, my brother Jem got his arm badly broken at the
elbow. When it healed, and Jem’s fears of never being able to play football were
assuaged, he was seldom self-conscious about his injury. His left arm was
somewhat shorter than his right; when he stood or walked, the back of his hand
was at right angles to his body, his thumb parallel to his thigh. He couldn’t have
cared less, so long as he could pass and punt.
When enough years had gone by to enable us to look back on them, we
sometimes discussed the events leading to his accident. I maintain that the
Ewells started it all, but Jem, who was four years my senior, said it started long
before that. He said it began the summer Dill came to us, when Dill first gave us
the idea of making Boo Radley come out.
I said if he wanted to take a broad view of the thing, it really began with
Andrew Jackson. If General Jackson hadn’t run the Creeks up the creek, Simon
Finch would never have paddled up the Alabama, and where would we be if he
hadn’t? We were far too old to settle an argument with a fist-fight, so we
consulted Atticus. Our father said we were both right.
Being Southerners, it was a source of shame to some members of the family
that we had no recorded ancestors on either side of the Battle of Hastings. All we
had was Simon Finch, a fur-trapping apothecary from Cornwall whose piety was
exceeded only by his stinginess. In England, Simon was irritated by the
persecution of those who called themselves Methodists at the hands of their
more liberal brethren, and as Simon called himself a Methodist, he worked his
way across the Atlantic to Philadelphia, thence to Jamaica, thence to Mobile, and
up the Saint Stephens. Mindful of John Wesley’s strictures on the use of many
words in buying and selling, Simon made a pile practicing medicine, but in this
pursuit he was unhappy lest he be tempted into doing what he knew was not for
the glory of God, as the putting on of gold and costly apparel. So Simon, having
forgotten his teacher’s dictum on the possession of human chattels, bought three
slaves and with their aid established a homestead on the banks of the Alabama
River some forty miles above Saint Stephens. He returned to Saint Stephens only
once, to find a wife, and with her established a line that ran high to daughters.
Simon lived to an impressive age and died rich.
It was customary for the men in the family to remain on Simon’s homestead,
Finch’s Landing, and make their living from cotton. The place was selfsufficient:
modest in comparison with the empires around it, the Landing
nevertheless produced everything required to sustain life except ice, wheat flour,
and articles of clothing, supplied by river-boats from Mobile.
Simon would have regarded with impotent fury the disturbance between the
North and the South, as it left his descendants stripped of everything but their
land, yet the tradition of living on the land remained unbroken until well into the
twentieth century, when my father, Atticus Finch, went to Montgomery to read
law, and his younger brother went to Boston to study medicine. Their sister
Alexandra was the Finch who remained at the Landing: she married a taciturn
man who spent most of his time lying in a hammock by the river wondering if
his trot-lines were full.
When my father was admitted to the bar, he returned to Maycomb and began
his practice. Maycomb, some twenty miles east of Finch’s Landing, was the
county seat of Maycomb County. Atticus’s office in the courthouse contained
little more than a hat rack, a spittoon, a checkerboard and an unsullied Code of
Alabama. His first two clients were the last two persons hanged in the Maycomb
County jail. Atticus had urged them to accept the state’s generosity in allowing
them to plead Guilty to second-degree murder and escape with their lives, but
they were Haverfords, in Maycomb County a name synonymous with jackass.
The Haverfords had dispatched Maycomb’s leading blacksmith in a
misunderstanding arising from the alleged wrongful detention of a mare, were
imprudent enough to do it in the presence of three witnesses, and insisted that
the-son-of-a-bitch-had-it-coming-to-him was a good enough defense for
anybody. They persisted in pleading Not Guilty to first-degree murder, so there
was nothing much Atticus could do for his clients except be present at their
departure, an occasion that was probably the beginning of my father’s profound
distaste for the practice of criminal law.
During his first five years in Maycomb, Atticus practiced economy more than
anything; for several years thereafter he invested his earnings in his brother’s
education. John Hale Finch was ten years younger than my father, and chose to
study medicine at a time when cotton was not worth growing; but after getting
Uncle Jack started, Atticus derived a reasonable income from the law. He liked
Maycomb, he was Maycomb County born and bred; he knew his people, they
knew him, and because of Simon Finch’s industry, Atticus was related by blood
or marriage to nearly every family in the town.
Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it. In
rainy weather the streets turned to red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the
courthouse sagged in the square. Somehow, it was hotter then: a black dog
suffered on a summer’s day; bony mules hitched to Hoover carts flicked flies in
the sweltering shade of the live oaks on the square. Men’s stiff collars wilted by
nine in the morning. Ladies bathed before noon, after their three-o’clock naps,
and by nightfall were like soft teacakes with frostings of sweat and sweet talcum.
People moved slowly then. They ambled across the square, shuffled in and out
of the stores around it, took their time about everything. A day was twenty-four
hours long but seemed longer. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go,
nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the
boundaries of Maycomb County. But it was a time of vague optimism for some
of the people: Maycomb County had recently been told that it had nothing to fear
but fear itself.
We lived on the main residential street in town—Atticus, Jem and I, plus
Calpurnia our cook. Jem and I found our father satisfactory: he played with us,
read to us, and treated us with courteous detachment.
Calpurnia was something else again. She was all angles and bones; she was
nearsighted; she squinted; her hand was wide as a bed slat and twice as hard. She
was always ordering me out of the kitchen, asking me why I couldn’t behave as
well as Jem when she knew he was older, and calling me home when I wasn’t
ready to come. Our battles were epic and one-sided. Calpurnia always won,
mainly because Atticus always took her side. She had been with us ever since
Jem was born, and I had felt her tyrannical presence as long as I could
Our mother died when I was two, so I never felt her absence. She was a
Graham from Montgomery; Atticus met her when he was first elected to the
state legislature. He was middle-aged then, she was fifteen years his junior. Jem
was the product of their first year of marriage; four years later I was born, and
two years later our mother died from a sudden heart attack. They said it ran in
her family. I did not miss her, but I think Jem did. He remembered her clearly,
and sometimes in the middle of a game he would sigh at length, then go off and
play by himself behind the car-house. When he was like that, I knew better than
to bother him.
When I was almost six and Jem was nearly ten, our summertime boundaries
(within calling distance of Calpurnia) were Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose’s
house two doors to the north of us, and the Radley Place three doors to the south.
We were never tempted to break them. The Radley Place was inhabited by an
unknown entity the mere description of whom was enough to make us behave
for days on end; Mrs. Dubose was plain hell.
That was the summer Dill came to us.
Early one morning as we were beginning our day’s play in the back yard, Jem
and I heard something next door in Miss Rachel Haverford’s collard patch. We
went to the wire fence to see if there was a puppy—Miss Rachel’s rat terrier was
expecting—instead we found someone sitting looking at us. Sitting down, he
wasn’t much higher than the collards. We stared at him until he spoke:
“Hey yourself,” said Jem pleasantly.
“I’m Charles Baker Harris,” he said. “I can read.”
“So what?” I said.
“I just thought you’d like to know I can read. You got anything needs readin‘ I
can do it . . .”
“How old are you,” asked Jem, “four-and-a-half?”
“Goin‘ on seven.”
“Shoot no wonder, then,” said Jem, jerking his thumb at me. “Scout yonder’s
been readin‘ ever since she was born, and she ain’t even started to school yet.
You look right puny for goin’ on seven.”
“I’m little but I’m old,” he said.
Jem brushed his hair back to get a better look. “Why don’t you come over,
Charles Baker Harris?” he said. “Lord, what a name.”
“‘s not any funnier’n yours. Aunt Rachel says your name’s Jeremy Atticus
Jem scowled. “I’m big enough to fit mine,” he said. “Your name’s longer’n
you are. Bet it’s a foot longer.”
“Folks call me Dill,” said Dill, struggling under the fence.
“Do better if you go over it instead of under it,” I said. “Where’d you come
Dill was from Meridian, Mississippi, was spending the summer with his aunt,
Miss Rachel, and would be spending every summer in Maycomb from now on.
His family was from Maycomb County originally, his mother worked for a
photographer in Meridian, had entered his picture in a Beautiful Child contest
and won five dollars. She gave the money to Dill, who went to the picture show
twenty times on it.
“Don’t have any picture shows here, except Jesus ones in the courthouse
sometimes,” said Jem. “Ever see anything good?”
Dill had seen Dracula, a revelation that moved Jem to eye him with the
beginning of respect. “Tell it to us,” he said.
Dill was a curiosity. He wore blue linen shorts that buttoned to his shirt, his
hair was snow white and stuck to his head like duckfluff; he was a year my
senior but I towered over him. As he told us the old tale his blue eyes would
lighten and darken; his laugh was sudden and happy; he habitually pulled at a
cowlick in the center of his forehead.
When Dill reduced Dracula to dust, and Jem said the show sounded better
than the book, I asked Dill where his father was: “You ain’t said anything about
“I haven’t got one.”
“Is he dead?”
“No . . .”
“Then if he’s not dead you’ve got one, haven’t you?”
Dill blushed and Jem told me to hush, a sure sign that Dill had been studied
and found acceptable. Thereafter the summer passed in routine contentment.
Routine contentment was: improving our treehouse that rested between giant
twin chinaberry trees in the back yard, fussing, running through our list of
dramas based on the works of Oliver Optic, Victor Appleton, and Edgar Rice
Burroughs. In this matter we were lucky to have Dill. He played the character
parts formerly thrust upon me—the ape in Tarzan, Mr. Crabtree in The Rover
Boys, Mr. Damon in Tom Swift. Thus we came to know Dill as a pocket Merlin,
whose head teemed with eccentric plans, strange longings, and quaint fancies.
But by the end of August our repertoire was vapid from countless
reproductions, and it was then that Dill gave us the idea of making Boo Radley
The Radley Place fascinated Dill. In spite of our warnings and explanations it
drew him as the moon draws water, but drew him no nearer than the light-pole
on the corner, a safe distance from the Radley gate. There he would stand, his
arm around the fat pole, staring and wondering.
The Radley Place jutted into a sharp curve beyond our house. Walking south,
one faced its porch; the sidewalk turned and ran beside the lot. The house was
low, was once white with a deep front porch and green shutters, but had long ago
darkened to the color of the slate-gray yard around it. Rain-rotted shingles
drooped over the eaves of the veranda; oak trees kept the sun away. The remains
of a picket drunkenly guarded the front yard—a “swept” yard that was never
swept—where johnson grass and rabbit-tobacco grew in abundance.
Inside the house lived a malevolent phantom. People said he existed, but Jem
and I had never seen him. People said he went out at night when the moon was
down, and peeped in windows. When people’s azaleas froze in a cold snap, it
was because he had breathed on them. Any stealthy small crimes committed in
Maycomb were his work. Once the town was terrorized by a series of morbid
nocturnal events: people’s chickens and household pets were found mutilated;
although the culprit was Crazy Addie, who eventually drowned himself in
Barker’s Eddy, people still looked at the Radley Place, unwilling to discard their
initial suspicions. A Negro would not pass the Radley Place at night, he would
cut across to the sidewalk opposite and whistle as he walked. The Maycomb
school grounds adjoined the back of the Radley lot; from the Radley chickenyard
tall pecan trees shook their fruit into the schoolyard, but the nuts lay untouched
by the children: Radley pecans would kill you. A baseball hit into the Radley
yard was a lost ball and no questions asked.
The misery of that house began many years before Jem and I were born. The
Radleys, welcome anywhere in town, kept to themselves, a predilection
unforgivable in Maycomb. They did not go to church, Maycomb’s principal
recreation, but worshiped at home; Mrs. Radley seldom if ever crossed the street
for a mid-morning coffee break with her neighbors, and certainly never joined a
missionary circle. Mr. Radley walked to town at eleven-thirty every morning and
came back promptly at twelve, sometimes carrying a brown paper bag that the
neighborhood assumed contained the family groceries. I never knew how old
Mr. Radley made his living—Jem said he “bought cotton,” a polite term for
doing nothing—but Mr. Radley and his wife had lived there with their two sons
as long as anybody could remember.
The shutters and doors of the Radley house were closed on Sundays, another
thing alien to Maycomb’s ways: closed doors meant illness and cold weather
only. Of all days Sunday was the day for formal afternoon visiting: ladies wore
corsets, men wore coats, children wore shoes. But to climb the Radley front
steps and call, “He-y,” of a Sunday afternoon was something their neighbors
never did. The Radley house had no screen doors. I once asked Atticus if it ever
had any; Atticus said yes, but before I was born.
According to neighborhood legend, when the younger Radley boy was in his
teens he became acquainted with some of the Cunninghams from Old Sarum, an
enormous and confusing tribe domiciled in the northern part of the county, and
they formed the nearest thing to a gang ever seen in Maycomb. They did little,
but enough to be discussed by the town and publicly warned from three pulpits:
they hung around the barbershop; they rode the bus to Abbottsville on Sundays
and went to the picture show; they attended dances at the county’s riverside
gambling hell, the Dew-Drop Inn & Fishing Camp; they experimented with
stumphole whiskey. Nobody in Maycomb had nerve enough to tell Mr. Radley
that his boy was in with the wrong crowd.
One night, in an excessive spurt of high spirits, the boys backed around the
square in a borrowed flivver, resisted arrest by Maycomb’s ancient beadle, Mr.
Conner, and locked him in the courthouse outhouse. The town decided
something had to be done; Mr. Conner said he knew who each and every one of
them was, and he was bound and determined they wouldn’t get away with it, so
the boys came before the probate judge on charges of disorderly conduct,
disturbing the peace, assault and battery, and using abusive and profane
language in the presence and hearing of a female. The judge asked Mr. Conner
why he included the last charge; Mr. Conner said they cussed so loud he was
sure every lady in Maycomb heard them. The judge decided to send the boys to
the state industrial school, where boys were sometimes sent for no other reason
than to provide them with food and decent shelter: it was no prison and it was no
disgrace. Mr. Radley thought it was. If the judge released Arthur, Mr. Radley
would see to it that Arthur gave no further trouble. Knowing that Mr. Radley’s
word was his bond, the judge was glad to do so.
The other boys attended the industrial school and received the best secondary
education to be had in the state; one of them eventually worked his way through
engineering school at Auburn. The doors of the Radley house were closed on
weekdays as well as Sundays, and Mr. Radley’s boy was not seen again for
But there came a day, barely within Jem’s memory, when Boo Radley was
heard from and was seen by several people, but not by Jem. He said Atticus
never talked much about the Radleys: when Jem would question him Atticus’s
only answer was for him to mind his own business and let the Radleys mind
theirs, they had a right to; but when it happened Jem said Atticus shook his head
and said, “Mm, mm, mm.”
So Jem received most of his information from Miss Stephanie Crawford, a
neighborhood scold, who said she knew the whole thing. According to Miss
Stephanie, Boo was sitting in the livingroom cutting some items from The
Maycomb Tribune to paste in his scrapbook. His father entered the room. As Mr.
Radley passed by, Boo drove the scissors into his parent’s leg, pulled them out,
wiped them on his pants, and resumed his activities.
Mrs. Radley ran screaming into the street that Arthur was killing them all, but
when the sheriff arrived he found Boo still sitting in the livingroom, cutting up
the Tribune. He was thirty-three years old then.
Miss Stephanie said old Mr. Radley said no Radley was going to any asylum,
when it was suggested that a season in Tuscaloosa might be helpful to Boo. Boo
wasn’t crazy, he was high-strung at times. It was all right to shut him up, Mr.
Radley conceded, but insisted that Boo not be charged with anything: he was not
a criminal. The sheriff hadn’t the heart to put him in jail alongside Negroes, so
Boo was locked in the courthouse basement.
Boo’s transition from the basement to back home was nebulous in Jem’s
memory. Miss Stephanie Crawford said some of the town council told Mr.
Radley that if he didn’t take Boo back, Boo would die of mold from the damp.
Besides, Boo could not live forever on the bounty of the county.
Nobody knew what form of intimidation Mr. Radley employed to keep Boo
out of sight, but Jem figured that Mr. Radley kept him chained to the bed most of
the time. Atticus said no, it wasn’t that sort of thing, that there were other ways
of making people into ghosts.
My memory came alive to see Mrs. Radley occasionally open the front door,
walk to the edge of the porch, and pour water on her cannas. But every day Jem
and I would see Mr. Radley walking to and from town. He was a thin leathery
man with colorless eyes, so colorless they did not reflect light. His cheekbones
were sharp and his mouth was wide, with a thin upper lip and a full lower lip.
Miss Stephanie Crawford said he was so upright he took the word of God as his
only law, and we believed her, because Mr. Radley’s posture was ramrod
He never spoke to us. When he passed we would look at the ground and say,
“Good morning, sir,” and he would cough in reply. Mr. Radley’s elder son lived
in Pensacola; he came home at Christmas, and he was one of the few persons we
ever saw enter or leave the place. From the day Mr. Radley took Arthur home,
people said the house died.
But there came a day when Atticus told us he’d wear us out if we made any
noise in the yard and commissioned Calpurnia to serve in his absence if she
heard a sound out of us. Mr. Radley was dying.
He took his time about it. Wooden sawhorses blocked the road at each end of
the Radley lot, straw was put down on the sidewalk, traffic was diverted to the
back street. Dr. Reynolds parked his car in front of our house and walked to the
Radley’s every time he called. Jem and I crept around the yard for days. At last
the sawhorses were taken away, and we stood watching from the front porch
when Mr. Radley made his final journey past our house.
“There goes the meanest man ever God blew breath into,” murmured
Calpurnia, and she spat meditatively into the yard. We looked at her in surprise,
for Calpurnia rarely commented on the ways of white people.
The neighborhood thought when Mr. Radley went under Boo would come out,
but it had another think coming: Boo’s elder brother returned from Pensacola
and took Mr. Radley’s place. The only difference between him and his father
was their ages. Jem said Mr. Nathan Radley “bought cotton,” too. Mr. Nathan
would speak to us, however, when we said good morning, and sometimes we
saw him coming from town with a magazine in his hand.
The more we told Dill about the Radleys, the more he wanted to know, the
longer he would stand hugging the light-pole on the corner, the more he would
“Wonder what he does in there,” he would murmur. “Looks like he’d just
stick his head out the door.”
Jem said, “He goes out, all right, when it’s pitch dark. Miss Stephanie
Crawford said she woke up in the middle of the night one time and saw him
looking straight through the window at her . . . said his head was like a skull
lookin‘ at her. Ain’t you ever waked up at night and heard him, Dill? He walks
like this—” Jem slid his feet through the gravel. “Why do you think Miss Rachel
locks up so tight at night? I’ve seen his tracks in our back yard many a mornin’,
and one night I heard him scratching on the back screen, but he was gone time
Atticus got there.”
“Wonder what he looks like?” said Dill.
Jem gave a reasonable description of Boo: Boo was about six-and-a-half feet
tall, judging from his tracks; he dined on raw squirrels and any cats he could
catch, that’s why his hands were bloodstained—if you ate an animal raw, you
could never wash the blood off. There was a long jagged scar that ran across his
face; what teeth he had were yellow and rotten; his eyes popped, and he drooled
most of the time.
“Let’s try to make him come out,” said Dill. “I’d like to see what he looks
Jem said if Dill wanted to get himself killed, all he had to do was go up and
knock on the front door.
Our first raid came to pass only because Dill bet Jem The Gray Ghost against
two Tom Swifts that Jem wouldn’t get any farther than the Radley gate. In all his
life, Jem had never declined a dare.
Jem thought about it for three days. I suppose he loved honor more than his
head, for Dill wore him down easily: “You’re scared,” Dill said, the first day.
“Ain’t scared, just respectful,” Jem said. The next day Dill said, “You’re too
scared even to put your big toe in the front yard.” Jem said he reckoned he
wasn’t, he’d passed the Radley Place every school day of his life.
“Always runnin‘,” I said.
But Dill got him the third day, when he told Jem that folks in Meridian
certainly weren’t as afraid as the folks in Maycomb, that he’d never seen such
scary folks as the ones in Maycomb.
This was enough to make Jem march to the corner, where he stopped and
leaned against the light-pole, watching the gate hanging crazily on its homemade
“I hope you’ve got it through your head that he’ll kill us each and every one,
Dill Harris,” said Jem, when we joined him. “Don’t blame me when he gouges
your eyes out. You started it, remember.”
“You’re still scared,” murmured Dill patiently.
Jem wanted Dill to know once and for all that he wasn’t scared of anything:
“It’s just that I can’t think of a way to make him come out without him gettin‘
us.” Besides, Jem had his little sister to think of.
When he said that, I knew he was afraid. Jem had his little sister to think of
the time I dared him to jump off the top of the house: “If I got killed, what’d
become of you?” he asked. Then he jumped, landed unhurt, and his sense of
responsibility left him until confronted by the Radley Place.
“You gonna run out on a dare?” asked Dill. “If you are, then—”
“Dill, you have to think about these things,” Jem said. “Lemme think a minute
. . . it’s sort of like making a turtle come out . . .”
“How’s that?” asked Dill.
“Strike a match under him.”
I told Jem if he set fire to the Radley house I was going to tell Atticus on him.
Dill said striking a match under a turtle was hateful.
“Ain’t hateful, just persuades him—‘s not like you’d chunk him in the fire,”
“How do you know a match don’t hurt him?”
“Turtles can’t feel, stupid,” said Jem.
“Were you ever a turtle, huh?”
“My stars, Dill! Now lemme think . . . reckon we can rock him . . .”
Jem stood in thought so long that Dill made a mild concession: “I won’t say
you ran out on a dare an‘ I’ll swap you The Gray Ghost if you just go up and
touch the house.”
Jem brightened. “Touch the house, that all?”
“Sure that’s all, now? I don’t want you hollerin‘ something different the
minute I get back.”
“Yeah, that’s all,” said Dill. “He’ll probably come out after you when he sees
you in the yard, then Scout’n‘ me’ll jump on him and hold him down till we can
tell him we ain’t gonna hurt him.”
We left the corner, crossed the side street that ran in front of the Radley house,
and stopped at the gate.
“Well go on,” said Dill, “Scout and me’s right behind you.”
“I’m going,” said Jem, “don’t hurry me.”
He walked to the corner of the lot, then back again, studying the simple terrain
as if deciding how best to effect an entry, frowning and scratching his head.
Then I sneered at him.
Jem threw open the gate and sped to the side of the house, slapped it with his
palm and ran back past us, not waiting to see if his foray was successful. Dill and
I followed on his heels. Safely on our porch, panting and out of breath, we
The old house was the same, droopy and sick, but as we stared down the street
we thought we saw an inside shutter move. Flick. A tiny, almost invisible
movement, and the house was still.